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Tue, 25 Apr 2017 08:34:45 GMT (Rajab 28, 1438) Updated:1:53 am
Home » Refuting Darwinism » Insects: One of the Gravest Dilemmas Facing Evolutionists (Part 1/3)

Insects: One of the Gravest Dilemmas Facing Evolutionists (Part 1/3)

By Harun Yahya

insectsIn other articles, we have examined the extraordinary abilities of microorganisms, their complex structures too small to be seen with the naked eye, and the invalidity of evolutionist explanations. But insects are even more interesting than microorganisms, and present just as great a dilemma for the theory of evolution.

Insects occupy a very different niche than other species. As the fossil record shows, insects have been around for at least 400 million years. Over that time, various catastrophes have taken place, and large numbers of animal species have become extinct. Insects are among the few living things not to have been affected. With their superior creation, they have spread and multiplied in every kind of environment—deserts, forests, lakes, volcanoes, water, even icebergs, and in short, anywhere at all.

Some insects prevent their bodies from cold by producing a form of antifreeze. This lets them live on the high peaks of the Himalayas, while others endure temperatures above 47 °C in the Sahara Desert.

There are so many species of insects that scientists cannot come up with an exact figure. Insects constitute three-quarters of all the animal species known today. According to the latest research, the total number of insect species is between 2 and 30 million. Only 370,000 of these have been described so far. Also, moreover, up to 15,000 species of fossil insect have been found. Their total numbers are estimated to exceed 1 trillion and their total weight, 2.7 billion tons—a figure equivalent to 45 billion human beings. In other words, there are more than 170 million insects for every human being. As you can appreciate from these extraordinary figures, insects also constitute a major link in the food chain.

As we’ll show in the sections that follow, evolutionists would dearly love to live in a world without insects. These creatures emerged suddenly in the fossil record, have no alleged ancestors behind them, possess exceedingly complex organs and, most important of all, exhibit an enormous variety—all of which creates problems that the theory of evolution cannot answer logically.

The creation in insects

Were you to examine each of the millions of species of insects one by one, you would see that each family possesses very different structures. In terms of their wings alone, many varieties of insects bear no resemblance to one another. Butterfly wings, for instance, have a completely different structure from those of flies. In the same way, the dragonfly has a totally different body structure than the locust, the cockroach than the ant, and the bee than o the flea. There’s no room here to examine all the different features possessed by insects, though we can survey certain common structures.

The carapace

Of the features that allow insects to live in all sorts of climatic conditions, heading the list is the chitin shell that forms the outer surface of their bodies. Insects have no skeletons, but rather, a so-called exoskeleton that surrounds them like armor. Its main component is chitin, which is exceedingly thin and light, which means that insects have no difficulty in bearing its weight. In addition to covering the insect’s body, it is strong but very flexible. It can move as the muscles inside the insect’s body expand and contract. This makes the insect very fast-moving, and also reduces the impact of any blows from the outside. This special substance also prevents water from entering; neither can fluids inside their bodies escape. They are less affected by heat and even by radiation. Their exoskeleton’s color generally matches that of their surroundings, though. It may sometimes be shiny, to deter enemies.

Scientists and designers have dreamed of being able to produce chitin artificially. Since the First World War in particular, designs for vehicles produced using chitin have been made.

Flight systems

According to the fossil record, insects have been flying for at least 350 million years, without any needing for feathers. Naturally, accounting for insect flight is even more difficult for evolutionists who cannot convincingly explain how birds came to fly. According to the fossil record, insects suddenly emerged in their present-day forms, some 350 to 400 million years ago. Another problem for the theory of evolution is how insects have come down to the present without undergoing any structural changes. In other words, there is no difference between a cockroach or dragonfly alive 400 million years ago and specimens alive today.

Insects’ different flight systems are still other examples of creation. Many species have flying abilities superior to that of birds. The monarch butterfly is capable of flying from Canada in north America to Mexico. Flies and dragonflies can hover in the air. In addition, insects’ wings also display wholly different structures. Some species have only two wings, and others four—and grasshoppers have two wing casuings in addition! Some beetles’ wings fold inwards and have a protective casing; others have membranous wings, and others, like butterflies, ones covered with microscopic scales. Every type of insect wing exhibits its own unique perfection. Their wing joints are made of a special protein called resilin, which has perfectly elastic properties. Chemical engineers are still trying to produce this substance, whose features are far superior to those of both natural and man-made rubber. By means of stretching and contracting, resilin stores and can give back as much as 96% of the energy loaded onto it. Thanks to this, some 85% of the energy an insect expends in raising its wing is used again when it lowers the wing. The insect’s chest walls and muscles have also been created to permit such energy storage. This allows extraordinary energy to be released, making it possible for insect wings to beat between 200 (for honeybees) and even 1,000 times a second (in sand flies).

Evolutionists suggest that some of the chitin layers in the insect’s thorax turned into wings. They must know how weak that claim is, because they also state that there is no fossil to verify this. Various scenarios have also been produced to explain how insect flight evolved. According to the so-called tracheal theory, when insects living in water emerged onto land, they developed wings from the trachea in their thoraxes. The invalidity of this theory was revealed the moment it was unveiled, because the same muscles found in aquatic insects’ gills are not found in wings. Furthermore, there is no evidence of transitional fossils to show that insects went from a wingless phase to a winged one. On the contrary, fossils reveal no “primitive” insects. Even the oldest known insects had the same perfect flight systems as those living today.

The second scenario, the so-called paranotal theory, maintains that certain regions in the thorax expanded, flattened out and gradually assumed the form of wings. According to this claim—for reasons unknown to evolutionists—only two of the three sections in insects’ thoraxic regions exhibited this alteration and thus gave rise to wings.

One can see a similarity in the way that evolutionists seek to account for bird flight. However, elements in both scenarios make them invalid and illogical. The most important of them is that the fossil record invalidates these claims. Secondly, wings possess irreducible complexity: they function only if they exist as an entire unit. The half-wing or newly emergent wing suggested by evolutionists would be worse than useless. Third, in genetic terms, no mutations that can add new beneficial features to a species or improve already existing ones. For that reason, if a flight system were not already determined in a creature’s DNA, it is impossible to add new “flight-worthy” data to that DNA via random mutations.

In other words, blind coincidence can produce no new information in nature. In order for an organ like a wing or an eye to form, there needs to be a Supreme Creator. Yet there is no such consciousness in nature. In any case, evolutionary scenarios tend to cite the world view imagined by the person drawing up the scenario, rather than scientific details. Ideological obsessions weigh heavier than facts in the shaping of these conjectures. The well known French zoologist Pierre Paul Grassé admits the truth of this in the words, “We are in the dark concerning the origin of insects.”

In fact, however, that the flawless creation in the fly wing invalidates all claims of chance. In an article published in the journal Scientific American, Robin J. Wootton from Exeter University comments on insects’ flying abilities:

Insects include some of the most versatile and maneuverable of all flying machines. … some insects-through a combination of low mass, sophisticated neurosensory systems and complex musculature-display astonishing aerobatic feats. Houseflies, for example, can decelerate from fast flight, hover, turn in their own length, fly upside down, loop, roll and land on a ceiling-all in a fraction of a second… The better we understand the functioning of insect wings, the more subtle and beautiful their designs appear. Earlier comparisons with sails now seem quite inadequate. The wings emerge as a family of flexible airfoils that are in a sense intermediate between structures and mechanisms, as these terms are understood by engineers. Structures are traditionally designed to deform as little as possible; mechanisms are designed to move component parts in predictable ways. Insect wings combine both in one, using components with a wide range of elastic properties, elegantly assembled to allow appropriate deformations in response to appropriate forces and to make the best possible use of the air. They have few if any technological parallels-yet.

Look at the dragonfly, which evolutionists describe as “more primitive” compared to other insects, and it becomes apparent just how ideology-oriented such claims are. Dragonflies cannot fold their wings, the way their muscles cause the wings to move is different from that in other insects. Solely on account of these features, evolutionists claim that dragonflies are “primitive.” Yet the dragonfly’s flight system is actually a marvel of creation. Leading companies have produced helicopter models in imitation of this flight system. Photographer Gillian Martin undertook a two-year study aimed at investigating dragonflies, and the information he obtained showed that these insects possess very sophisticated flight systems.

The dragonfly abdomen gives the impression that it’s covered in chain mail. Its two pairs of wings are located diagonally on top of its thorax, whose colors of which range from ice blue to burgundy. Thanks to this wing structure, the dragonfly has considerable maneuverability. No matter what its speed and direction of flight, it can suddenly halt and reverse course, or else hover in the air, waiting for an appropriate moment to attack its prey. It can also approach its prey by making a convoluted, curving approach. It can quickly reach a speed of 40 kilometers (24,85 miles) an hour— quite astonishing for an insect—at which rate it seizes its prey. The shock of the impact is very strong, but the dragonfly’s exo-armor is both very strong and very flexible. Its flexibility absorbs the shock of the impact, even though the same cannot be said for its prey, which is either stunned or killed.

Following the moment of impact, the dragonfly’s powerful rear legs enter the equation. During flight its legs are folded up, then quickly opened to seize the prey. Now the lower jaws quickly tear the prey apart and devour it.

The dragonfly’s visual ability is also flawless. The dragonfly’s eye is regarded as the best insect eye in existence. Its two eyes each possesses around 30,000 lenses. These hemispherical eyes cover most of its head, giving the insect a wide field of vision. Thanks to these eyes, a dragonfly can almost a good deal of what is going on behind it.

As you can see, the examples cited by the proponents of the theory of evolution are meaningless. Like every other insect, the dragonfly has been equipped with systems that are marvels of creation. To dismiss any one of them as “primitive” is the result of either lack of understanding, or else a deliberate distortion. There is no difference at all between the oldest dragonfly fossils yet discovered and specimens alive today. Neither is there any trace of any half-dragonfly or dragonfly just beginning to develop wings that have lived prior to these oldest fossils. Like other species, these species emerged suddenly and have survived unchanged to the present day. The perfect, complex flight systems encountered in various insects emerged from a superior creation, not from imaginary stage-by-stage scenarios. Allah created all these living things, and none underwent evolution.

 To be continued…

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Source: The Microworld Miracle.

Harun Yahya was born in Ankara in 1956. He studied arts at Istanbul’s Mimar Sinan University and philosophy at Istanbul University. Since the 1980s, the author has published many books on political, faith-related and scientific issues. Harun Yahya is well known as an author who has written very important works disclosing the imposture of evolutionists, the invalidity of their claims and the dark liaisons between Darwinism and bloody ideologies. Some of the books of the author have been translated into English, German, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Albanian, Arabic, Polish, Russian, Bosnian, Indonesian, Turkish, Tatar, Urdu and Malay and published in the countries concerned. Harun Yahya’s books appeal to all people, Muslims and non-Muslims alike, regardless of their age, race and nationality, as they center around one goal: to open the readers mind by presenting the signs of Gods eternal existence to them.

 

 

Insects: One of the Gravest Dilemmas Facing Evolutionists (Part 1/3) Reviewed by on . By Harun Yahya In other articles, we have examined the extraordinary abilities of microorganisms, their complex structures too small to be seen with the naked e By Harun Yahya In other articles, we have examined the extraordinary abilities of microorganisms, their complex structures too small to be seen with the naked e Rating: